What is program? What is programing Language? Type of Programming Languages


A computer is device that follow the instruction given to it  . A well define set of instruction given to the computer is called a computer program . A computer program is written in programming language . A person who developed is called programmer.

Programming Language 

A set of words and symbol used to write program is called programming language. The programming language are used to write computer program . A programming language is means of communication between a user and computer .

Type of Programming Languages

1-      Low Level Languages
2-       High Level Languages

Low level Language

Low level language are near to computer hardware and far from human languages. The low level language are divide into the following two main categories .
  •   Machine Language
  •  Assembly Language

Machine Language

A type of a language in which instruction are written in binary form is called machine language . it is the only language that is directly understood by the computer . it is the native language of the computer . A program written in machine language can be executed very fast by computer . The computer does not need any translator to understand this language . The programs written in machine language are machine dependence . Every computer has its own machine language . Machine language is difficult to understand . The process of writing and modifying program in  machine language take a lot of time.

Assembly Language

Assembly language is low level language . it is one step higher than machine language . in assembly language  machine instruction are replaced with English like words known as mnemonics . it is pronounced as Ne-Monics.
Program written in assembly Language are easier to write and modify than machine language . Assembly Language is mostly use for writing system software . A translator called assembler is used to convert assembly language program into machine language .

High Level Language 

A type of language that is close human language is called high level language . The instruction in the these language are similar to English language such as input  and print etc. These Language are easy to understand .      
Every high level language defines a set of rules for writing program called syntax each instruction must be written according to the syntax of the language . any error in the program is indicated by the language translator. A program Cannot be converted into machine language if it contains any syntax error .

Commonly used high level languages

Common high level language include the following 
  •  C/C++ : it is used to write system software and application software .
  •  Java : it provides strong feature for network programming.
  •  Pascal  : it is used for both scientific and business application
  •  Fortran . Fortran stand for formula translation . I has very power full mechanical capability
  •  Cobol : Cobol stand for common business oriented   Language . it is Specially design for business  application .

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